"[215] But, after the ANC's electoral victory in 1994, the eradication of mass poverty through nationalisation was never implemented. Land Bank established to assist white farmers. English and Dutch became the two official languages in 1925.[120][121]. The ANC-led government, in a historic reversal of policy, adopted neoliberalism instead. Their South African National Party, later known as the South African Party or SAP, followed a generally pro-British, white-unity line. Initially, a period of strong economic growth and social development ensued. South in its possessions. science, and technology. By 16 December, the fleet had passed the Great Fish River on the east coast of South Africa, where Dias had earlier turned back. [189] The armed wing of the ANC, Umkhonto weSizwe (abbreviation MK, meaning Spear of the Nation) claimed moral legitimacy for the resort to violence on the grounds of necessary defence and just war. Mandela claims responsibility for March 1994 Shell House shootings of Natives Urban Areas Act authorizes segregation in urban areas. 1913: Native Land Act, cornerstone of racial segregation, divides South Africa into black and white areas. 'active' : ''"> APLA denied the attacks were racist in character, claiming that the attacks were directed against the apartheid government as all whites, according to the PAC, were complicit in the policy of apartheid. Afrikaner settlers in particular were loathe to live under Moshoesoe's authority and among Africans.[76]. Others said it was not relevant to the struggle for their rights. [225] The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) found that competition over jobs, business opportunities, public services and housing gave rise to tension among refugees, asylum seekers, migrants and host communities, identified as a main cause of the xenophobic violence. Racial violence erupts in Durban, lasts several months. Want an ad-free experience?Subscribe to Independent Premium. Want to bookmark your favourite articles and stories to read or reference later? Population Registration Act authorizes racial classification. Cecil Rhodes establishes De Beers in Mozambique. Guelke, Leonard (1976). IFP, conservatives withdraw from constitutional Legislation reserves skilled jobs for whites. herdsmen establish trade with Europeans. Commission report forces senior police suspensions. continue to respect all commenters and create constructive debates. [34] This had the effect of forcing more of the Dutch colonists to move (or trek) away from British administrative reach. crash in South Africa. Log in to update your newsletter preferences, Monday - Friday plus breaking news alerts by email. President de Klerk, ANC leader Mandela visit US, jointly receive [103] The commercial opportunities opened by the discovery of gold attracted many other people of European Jewish origin. First permanent Dutch settlement at Cape of Good Hope. Timelines of cities in South Africa: Cape Town, Durban, Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth, ... Southern African Political History: A Chronology of Key Political Events from Independence to Mid-1997. [197], A non-racial United Democratic Front (UDF) coalition of about 400 civic, church, student, trade union and other organisations emerged in 1983. Apartheid apologists attempted to justify the "homelands" policy by citing the 1947 partition of India, when the British had done much the same thing without arousing international condemnation. Communist Mozambican President Samora Machel killed in plane Parliament repeals Pass Laws, Prohibition of 1828 - Shaka Zulu is assassinated by his brothers. The reinforcements arrived in Durban 20 days later; the siege was broken and the Voortrekkers retreated. [89] No material benefits accrued to the Griquas as a result of either colonisation or annexation; they did not receive any share of the diamond wealth generated at Kimberley. British Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's "Winds of Change" Both sides adopted scorched-earth tactics, with large swathes of pasturage and cropland being destroyed. Afrikaner South African Republic. He appealed to the British for help against Ndlambe, who retaliated in 1819 during the Fifth Frontier War by attacking the British colonial town of Grahamstown. First in a series of nationwide states of emergency. independent Afrikaner republic. 1948: National Party wins power and introduces apartheid laws. South Africa formally relinquishes Walvis Bay to Namibia. of South Africa. Meanwhile, the British, who viewed their defeat at Majuba as an aberration, forged ahead with their desire to federate the Southern African colonies and republics. These people become known as the Khoikhoi. Xhosa-Mfengu warfare. [137] The anti-semitic Boerenasie (Boer Nation) and other similar groups soon joined them. Largest conventional military assault since World War II on South-West [115] In terms of the peace agreement known as the Treaty of Vereeniging, the Boer republics acknowledged British sovereignty, while the British in turn committed themselves to reconstruction of the areas under their control. 1838: Dutch trekkers arrive in Natal province, defeating Zulu army. concept of apartheid." At the Blombos cave Professor Raymond Dart discovered the skull of a 2.51 million year old Taung Child in 1924, the first example of Australopithecus africanus ever found. presidential veto. German colony, South-West Africa. The Zulu resulted in the mass movement of many tribes who in turn to tried dominate those in new territories, leading to widespread warfare and waves of displacement spread throughout southern Africa and beyond. This aim was complicated by border conflicts with the Boers, who soon developed a distaste for British authority. South Africa rejects UN criticism of apartheid, reasserts claim to consider amnesty, compensation for human rights violations under The Zulu Empire begins to collapse. [153] Four hundred M-113A1 armoured personnel carriers, and 106mm recoilless rifles manufactured in the United States were delivered to South Africa via Israel. [223] Other corruption related scandals to emerge during this period included the collapse of VBS Mutual Bank[224] and Bosasa. Reconciliation Commission for 1977 killing of Steve Biko. Everything, including medical care, education, and even the country's beaches were segregated by race. Abundant, cheap African labour was central to the success of Kimberley diamond mining, as it would later also be to the success of gold mining on the Witwatersrand. [88], The Crown Colony of Griqualand West was annexed into the Cape Colony in 1877, enacted into law in 1880. The Apartheid Convention, as it came to be known, was adopted by the General Assembly on 30 November 1973 with 91 member states voting in favour, four against (Portugal, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States) and 26 abstentions. Sharing the full story, not just the headlines. In 1896, the German Kaiser Kaiser Wilhelm had enraged Britain by sending congratulations to Boer republican leader Paul Kruger after Kruger's commandos captured a column of British South Africa Company soldiers engaged in an armed incursion and abortive insurrection, known historically as the Jameson Raid, into Boer territory. Government foils coup plot by Afrikaner military officers. injured. [9], Many more species of early hominid have come to light in recent decades. extremist wing of NP. State clamps down on activists. 1961 - South Africa is declared a republic. The trade union movement was divided. White extremists sentenced to prison for 1994 bombings Interim constitution implemented for 1488 - Portuguese explorer Bartolomeu Dias sails around the southern tip of Africa. Algeria and Egypt, prohibits South African overflights. Black People's Convention founded to coordinate black consciousness Standard Encyclopaedia of Southern Africa. Battles and smallpox push back the indigenous populations of the San (hunter-gatherers) and the Khoikhoi (farmers). After the country's first multiracial democratic elections in 1994, a number of terrorist bomb blasts were linked to the AWB. Resignation of Minister of Finance Derek Keys. After an unsuccessful appeal for aid from the British Empire, Moshoeshoe signed the 1866 treaty of Thaba Bosiu, with the Basotho ceding substantial territory to the Orange Free State.

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